This report shows that in MENA, policies that lower competition and create an unleveled playing field abound and constrain private sector job creation. These policies take different forms across countries and sectors but share several common features: they limit free-entry in the domestic market, exclude certain firms from government programs, increase regulatory burden and uncertainty on non-privileged firms, insulate certain firms and sectors from foreign competition, and create incentives that discourage domestic firms from competing in international markets. The report shows that such policies are often captured by a few privileged firms with deep political connections, and that these policies persist despite their apparent cost to society.
Download: Jobs or Privileges: Unleashing the Employment Potential of the Middle East and North Africa (Schiffbauer, Marc, Sy, Abdoulaye, Hussain, Sahar, Sahnoun, Hania, Keefer, Philip. 2015)